Welcome to the Foodborne Disease website. The sources of pathogens responsible for causing foodborne illnesses are pervasive. Food and its derivatives will invariably harbor a small concentration of pathogenic agents. When existing in minor proportions, these detrimental microorganisms do not give rise to any concerns. However, upon surpassing a particular threshold of contamination, they hold the capability to initiate sickness and potentially lead to fatal outcomes..

Friday, January 05, 2024

Shigella Overview and Implications

Shigella, a Gram-negative and non-motile bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, consists of four species: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei, designated as serogroups A, B, C, and D, respectively.

Shigellosis, an acute invasive enteric infection, stems from the Shigella genus, clinically marked by diarrhea often accompanied by blood. The condition is widespread in numerous developing countries, occasionally sparking epidemics that result in substantial illness and mortality.

Shigellosis is responsible for around 80 million cases of bloody diarrhea and 700,000 deaths annually, with the majority affecting children under five years old (approximately 70% of cases and 60% of deaths). The onset typically occurs within twelve to fifty hours after consuming contaminated food, leading to symptoms like abdominal pain, cramps, fever, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Factors such as overcrowding and poor sanitation contribute to the prominence of shigellosis in developing countries. Vulnerable groups, including infants, non-breastfed children, those recovering from measles, malnourished children, and adults over 50 years old, face a higher risk of severe illness and death. Transmission primarily happens through the fecal-oral route, person-to-person contact, household flies, contaminated water, and inanimate objects.

Among the Shigella species, Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1) holds particular significance due to its capacity to induce the most severe disease and potentially lead to extensive regional epidemics.
Shigella Overview and Implications

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