Welcome to the Food Borne Disease Site. The sources of the foodborne illness pathogens are ubiquitous. Food and food products will always be contaminated with low levels of pathogens. At low levels, pathogenic microorganisms cause no problems. At illness thresholds, however, they can make people ill and cause death.

Wednesday, November 04, 2020

Norovirus infection

Norovirus (NoV)) is a highly contagious virus. Norovirus infection causes gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines). Human NoV, previously known as Norwalk virus, was first identified in stool specimens collected during an outbreak of gastroenteritis in Norwalk, OH. It was initially described in 1929 as “winter vomiting disease”.

NoVs are the major cause of acute nonbacterial human gastroenteritis, being transmitted from food or from person to person via a fecal-oral route, affecting population all over the world.

Indirect evidence in epidemiological studies shows that the virus transmission can be airborne, such as in explosive vomiting occurred during the disease. Transmission can also happen via water reservoir when groundwater is contaminated.

NoVs infect persons of all ages. Although NoV disease outbreaks are reported year-round, they peak during months with cold weather in temperate climates. Norovirus can spread quickly in enclosed places like daycare centers, nursing homes, schools, and cruise ships.

Clinical NoV infection generally has an incubation of 24–48 h and is characterized by acute onset of nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, myalgias, and non-bloody diarrhea.

NoV illness can present with relatively severe symptoms of vomiting and non-bloody diarrhea, with symptoms usually resolving in 2–3 days.

It only takes a very small amount of norovirus particles (fewer than 100) to make the person sick. People with norovirus illness shed billions of virus particles in their stool and vomit and can easily infect others.
Norovirus infection

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