Welcome to the Food Borne Disease Site. The sources of the foodborne illness pathogens are ubiquitous. Food and food products will always be contaminated with low levels of pathogens. At low levels, pathogenic microorganisms cause no problems. At illness thresholds, however, they can make people ill and cause death.

Thursday, December 05, 2019

Paratyphoid Fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Paratyphi

Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid fever) is caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi (S. Typhi) and Salmonella enterica serovars Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi). S. Paratyphi A and B (and, uncommonly, S. Paratyphi C) cause a disease that is clinically indistinguishable from typhoid fever, particularly in parts of Asia.

Generally, S. Paratyphi A is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Paratyphoid Fever is the same as for typhoid fever but disease is usually milder. S. Paratyphi A can be isolated from the blood and faeces from paratyphoid fever patients. This bacterium causes a milder infection with lower mortality and chronic carriage rate compared to S.Typhi.

Paratyphoid fever is transmitted by ingestion of food or water contaminated with feces or urine of infected people or directly from person to person. Shellfish harvested from sewage-contaminated water are potential vehicles, as are fruits and vegetables grown in soil fertilized with human waste. Family contact could be a factor of transmission as well, but a recent report on the risk factors for the disease showed that paratyphoid infections occur mostly outside the household.

The symptoms of typhoid and paratyphoid fever are similar although paratyphoid tends to be less severe than typhoid. Symptoms of S. Paratyphi A infection include fever, headache, diarrhoea or constipation, malaise, anorexia, nausea, dry cough, gastrointestinal symp-toms, abdominal pain, chills, raised spots or rashes on body.

Typhoid can be prevented by being vaccinated before travelling to a developing country. Additionally, people travelling in developing countries should:
*avoid uncooked foods, including fruit unless it is able to be peeled
*avoid untreated water, including ice
*drink from sealed containers (i.e. bottles or cans)
*wash their hands after going to the toilet and before eating
*avoid eating from street stalls
*ensure hot food is thoroughly cooked and eaten while hot.
Paratyphoid Fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Paratyphi
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